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Human Kinetics

Athletic Training and Therapy

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Athletic Training and Therapy: Foundations of Behavior and Practice builds upon an undergraduate understanding of health and exercise sciences to instill an evidence-based, graduate-level knowledge of best practices in athletic training and health care. 

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Book Description

Athletic Training and Therapy: Foundations of Behavior and Practice builds upon an undergraduate understanding of health and exercise sciences to instill an evidence-based, graduate-level knowledge of best practices in athletic training and health care. This text integrates essential competencies outlined by the AT Strategic Alliance, a collaboration of the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA), Board of Certification (BOC), and Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE).

Athletic Training and Therapy highlights contemporary concepts not often found in other introductory texts, such as cultural literacy, interprofessional practice, preventative health care, administrative management, special populations, and epidemiology. Students gain a complete picture of their role as an athletic trainer as they explore these topics and progress through the text.

Part I covers foundational clinical competencies that will guide students in their future professional practice. Part II features holistic wellness concepts and proactive strategies to prevent illness and injury. Part III presents emergency interventions for acute injury and immediate care. Part IV offers information on evaluating illness and injury. Part V addresses therapeutic and medical interventions, including therapeutic exercises, pharmacology, and casting procedures.

The full-color text engages students and fosters comprehension with learning aids:
Evidence-Based Athletic Training sidebars that highlight a position statement, systematic literature review, or high-level randomized control trials
Foundational Skills sidebars that provide step-by-step instructions for common skills required of entry-level athletic trainers
Chapter summaries of key concepts
Learning objectives to help students focus their studies during their graduate education and during preparation for the BOC examination
Related digital content delivered through HKPropel: videos of select skills and techniques, gradable chapter quizzes, case studies with critical thinking questions for each chapter, check sheets that can be used to grade students on their ability to accurately perform foundational skills, and flash card activities to self-test on glossary definitions
Athletic Training and Therapy offers advanced athletic training students an engaging presentation of the clinical skills they will need as a successful member of the interprofessional health care team.

Note: A code for accessing HKPropel is included with all new print books.

Textbook for entry-level graduate athletic training courses.

Table of Contents

CAATE Standards

Part I. Foundations of Professional Practice

Chapter 1. Athletic Training and the Health Care Team
Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Becoming an Athletic Trainer
Interprofessional Approach to Health Care Delivery
Athletic Trainers as Members of Health Care Teams
Athletic Training History
Professional Ethics
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 2. Evidence-Based Practice and Basic Research Principles
Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Definition of Evidence-Based Practice
Research Design and Levels of Evidence
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Critical Appraisal of the Literature
Applying Evidence-Based Practice
Understanding Diagnostic Tests
Research Ethics and Institutional Review Board
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 3. Public Health and Athletic Training
Samuel Johnson, PhD, ATC, CSCS
Defining Public Health
Intersection of Athletic Training and Public Health
Sequence of Prevention
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 4. Cultural Literacy in Patient-Centered Care
Marsha Grant-Ford, PhD, ATC; and Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Patient-Centered Care Definition
Person-First Language
Group Identities
Culture, Ethnicity, and Personal Core Values
Professional Culture and Core Values
Adverse Childhood Experiences
Social Determinants of Health
Cultural Competence
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 5. Health Care Administration and Health Care Informatics
Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Health Care Administration and Management
Health Policy and Laws
Quality Assurance
Documentation and Medical Records
Insurance, Third-Party Reimbursement, and Billing
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 6. Management, Planning, and Professional Development
Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Management and Leadership
Facility Planning
Risk Management
Clinical Bottom Line

Part II. Injury and Illness Prevention and Wellness Promotion

Chapter 7. Blood-Borne Pathogens
David C. Berry, PhD, MHA, AT, ATC; and Ellen K. Payne, PhD, LAT, ATC, EMT
Means of Pathogen Entry
Common Pathogens
Exposure Control Plan
Exposure Incident
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 8. Prevention Strategies and Procedures
Ellen K. Payne, PhD, LAT, ATC, EMT
Preparticipation Physical Examination
Thermoregulatory Mechanisms
Hypothermia and Cold-Related Conditions
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 9. Fitness and Wellness
Angela Hillman, PhD
Role of Exercise in Maintaining a Healthy Lifestyle
Definition of Exercise
Standardized Testing in Fitness and Wellness
Designing a Fitness Program
Instructing a Patient Through Fitness Exercise
Safety Precautions and Hazards
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 10. General Nutrition Concepts and Sports Nutrition
Ellen K. Payne, PhD, LAT, ATC, EMT; and Jennifer Doane, MS, RDN, CSSD, LDN, ATC
Energy and Nutrition Needs
Nutrition for Optimal Healing
Low Energy Availability
Dietary Supplements
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 11. Protective Equipment
Ellen K. Payne, PhD, LAT, ATC, EMT
Legal Issues
Basic Application of Protective Equipment
Emergency Removal of Protective Equipment
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 12. Taping and Bracing
David A. Wilkenfeld, EdD, LAT, ATC
Legal Issues
Principles of Prophylactic Procedures
Taping and Wrapping Techniques for the Lower Extremity
Taping and Wrapping Techniques for the Upper Extremity
Clinical Bottom Line

Part III. Immediate and Emergency Care

Chapter 13. Emergency Planning in Health Care
Ellen K. Payne, PhD, LAT, ATC, EMT
Components of an Emergency Action Plan
Types of Emergencies Covered in an Emergency Action Plan
Developing an Emergency Action Plan
Special Considerations
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 14. Acute Care and Emergency Procedures
Ellen K. Payne, PhD, LAT, ATC, EMT; and David C. Berry, PhD, MHA, AT, ATC
Principles of Emergency Assessment
Moving and Transporting the Injured or Ill Patient
Emergency Interventions
Clinical Bottom Line

Part IV. Injury and Illness Evaluation

Chapter 15. Pathophysiology of Musculoskeletal and Nerve Injury
James R. Scifers, DScPT, PT, LAT, ATC
Soft Tissue Injury
Bone Injury
Nerve Injury
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 16. Clinical Diagnosis and Medical Referral
Ellen K. Payne, PhD, LAT, ATC, EMT
Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis
Special Tests
Additional Assessment Components
Variations in the Assessment Process
Concussion Evaluation
Clinical Prediction Rule
Medical Referral
Documentation and Communication of the Injury Evaluation
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 17. Medical Imaging
Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT; and Loraine Zelna, MS, RT (R)(MR)
Radiologic Science and Its Roles in Imaging
Medical Imaging
Computed Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ultrasound or Diagnostic Medical Sonography
Nuclear Medicine
Imaging Life Cycle
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 18. Commonly Encountered Medical Conditions in Athletic Training
Tim Braun, PhD, LAT, ATC, CSCS
Examination Process
Diagnostic Tests
Infectious Diseases
Respiratory System Conditions
Cardiovascular System Conditions
Gastrointestinal System Conditions
Genitourinary System Conditions
Nervous System Conditions
Eye Conditions
Ear, Nose, Throat, and Mouth Conditions
Systemic Disorders
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Dermatological Conditions
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 19. Psychosocial Interventions in Athletic Training Health Care
Paul Knackstedt, MS, PsyD, CMPC
Prevalence of Psychosocial Disorders
Common Mental Health Disorders
Psychological Response to Injury
Psychosocial Interventions
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 20. Special Populations
Monique Mokha, PhD, LAT, ATC, CSCS; and Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Tactical Athletes
Masters Athletes
Pediatric Athletes
Pregnant Athletes
Introduction to Disability
Athletes With Visual Impairments and Blindness
Deaf Athletes and Athletes With Hearing Loss
Athletes With Amputations
Athletes With Spinal Cord Injury
Autonomic Dysreflexia
Athletes With Cerebral Palsy
Athletes With Intellectual Disabilities
Athletes With Les Autres
Clinical Bottom Line

Part V. Therapeutic and Medical Interventions

Chapter 21. Therapeutic Modalities and Interventions
Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Thermal Modalities
Electrical Modalities
Electromagnetic Modalities
Sound Modalities
Mechanical Modalities
Soft-Tissue Mobilization
Evolving and Emerging Therapeutic Modalities
Purchasing and Maintaining Equipment
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 22. Therapeutic Exercise in Rehabilitation
Mitchell Wasik, MS, ATC, LAT; and Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Therapeutic Exercise Overview
Physical Inactivity and Immobilization
Rehabilitation Program Essentials
Rehabilitation Phases Based on Tissue Healing
Therapeutic Strengthening, Endurance, and Power Exercises
Neuromuscular Control
Practitioner-Assisted Therapeutic Exercise
Purchasing and Maintaining Therapeutic Exercise Equipment
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 23. Pharmacological Interventions
Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Legal Issues and Regulations
Managing a Formulary
Drug Testing
Common Medications in Athletic Training
Commonly Abused Drugs and Supplements
Special Considerations
Clinical Bottom Line

Chapter 24. Casting
Bryce B. Gaines, LAT, ATC
Basic Principles
Materials for Application
General Application Tips
Cast Removal Procedures
Upper Extremity Casts
Lower Extremity Casts
Postcasting Care Considerations
Special Considerations
Clinical Bottom Line

Appendix. Standard Medical Terminology and Abbreviations


Leamor Kahanov, EdD, ATC, LAT, is the provost of SUNY Oneonta. She previously served as dean of the College of Health Sciences and Education at Misericordia University. Kahanov has also served as the assistant dean of interprofessional education at Indiana State University and as the graduate and undergraduate athletic training program director at San José State University.

Kahanov earned a bachelor’s degree in exercise science and athletic training from Indiana University; a master’s degree in exercise and sports sciences from the University of Arizona; and a doctorate in education, curriculum, and instruction from the University of San Francisco. She has authored or coauthored more than 80 articles published in peer-reviewed journals as well as 120 professional presentations.

Ellen K. Payne, PhD, LAT, ATC, EMT, is an assistant professor at Moravian College, teaching in the doctor of athletic training program, the master of science in athletic training program, and the undergraduate rehabilitation sciences program. Her previous experience includes teaching athletic training at Radford University and serving as the clinical education coordinator at Marywood University. Prior to becoming an educator, Payne spent six years teaching high school and practicing as an athletic trainer in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Clinically, she has worked with all levels of athletes, from youth sports to professional soccer. In the winter of 2019 she traveled to Spain with the U.S. Paralympic Alpine Ski Team to serve as their athletic trainer during World Cup racing. Payne is also an EMT with Bethlehem Township EMS and a member of the National Ski Patrol. Ellen's research interests include prehospital emergency care, athletic training education, and concussion education. She has authored more than 50 articles and presentations. She currently serves as an assistant editor for the Athletic Training Education Journal and is the Eastern Athletic Trainers’ Association (EATA) secretary.


By Samuel Johnson, PhD, ATC, CSCS

Athletic trainers are health care professionals who provide care for physically active people. Historically, athletic trainers worked with athletes on sports teams. However, as the profession has grown, so have the settings athletic trainers work in. For example, athletic trainers now work in the performing arts, public safety, the military, and industry, just to name a few settings. Part of the reason for this is the wide-ranging education athletic trainers receive, specifically within the five domains of athletic training:5

Injury and illness prevention and wellness promotion
Examination, assessment, and diagnosis
Immediate and emergency care
Therapeutic intervention
Health care administration and professional responsibility
Athletic trainers are well aligned with the medical approach, particularly as it relates to providing care to patients who are active. In most jurisdictions, athletic trainers are required to work in collaboration with or under the supervision of a physician; thus, they naturally become advocates for interprofessional practice.

Unlike many other medical professionals, athletic trainers typically provide services beyond the confines of a traditional medical clinic. Athletic trainers are often on site where the patients are, such as at a school, fire station, or warehouse. This means patients can seek care from the athletic trainer at the location of their activity or work, allowing for immediate care for injuries and illnesses. When needed, the athletic trainer refers the patient to other professionals.

The athletic trainer’s availability on site at the school or workplace also gives her the opportunity to develop and implement injury and illness prevention programs. In fact, athletic trainers working in high schools report that preventive services are the primary reason patients seek their services, accounting for nearly 50% of all services provided.6

Additionally, in many settings, the athletic trainer is responsible for the health of an entire group or population. From a public health perspective, a population is not just based on a geographic area. Here are just a few examples of populations athletic trainers serve:

All the athletes on a sports team
All the dancers in a ballet company
All the student-athletes in a school
All the firefighters in a fire department or district
All the employees in a distribution warehouse
All the soldiers in a battalion
Because athletic trainers work at both the patient and population levels, additional opportunities exist for more effective prevention. As this chapter later discusses, health and healthy choices are influenced by many factors. Although athletic trainers cannot directly influence all of these, they have the opportunity to affect many of them. Their wide-ranging education and training allow athletic trainers to provide both initial and follow-up care and referral as needed. By engaging the patient and other stakeholders, such as coaches, school or work administrators, teammates, coworkers, family members, and other health care professionals, the athletic trainer is well suited to promote the health of the population.

The relationship between caring for an individual patient and also an entire population is somewhat unique for a health care provider. This highlights the intersection of athletic training and public health. At its core, public health emphasizes “prevention over treatment, populations over individuals, and engagement at multiple levels.”7 The role of the athletic trainer aligns with public health and medical approaches because athletic training encompasses both prevention and treatment and the health of both the patient and the population. Athletic trainers also engage stakeholders on multiple levels. This intersection between athletic training and public health appears to be a natural fit, but in order to be successful, you need to be acquainted with the public health approach to prevention.